Her Brain Chose for Her
Aging Without Violence logo
Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses
Her Brain Chose for Her


Aboriginal Healing Foundation. (2004). Historic Trauma and Aboriginal Healing. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved from: http://www.ahf.ca/downloads/historic-trauma.pdf

Allan, B. & Smylie, J. (2015). First Peoples, second class treatment: The role of racism in the health and well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. Toronto, ON. The Wellesley Institute. Retrieved from: https://www.wellesleyinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Full-Report-FPSCT-Updated.pdf

Alzheimer’s Society Canada. (2019). 10 Warning Signs. Retrieved from: https://alzheimer.ca/en/Home/About-dementia/Alzheimers-disease/10-warning-signs

Alzheimer’s Society Canada. (2019). What is Dementia?. Retrieved from: https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-dementia

Archambault, A. et al. (2019). Interviewing the victim: techniques based on the realistic dynamics of sexual assault. End Violence Against Women International. Retrieved from: https://www.evawintl.org/LIBRARY/DOCUMENTLIBRARYHANDLER.ASHX?ID=657

Bailey, R. (2018). The limbic system of the brain. Retrieved from: https://www.thoughtco.com/limbic-system-anatomy-373200

Blackstock, C. (2010). Aboriginal and non-aboriginal children in child protection services. National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Retrieved from: https://www.nccah-ccnsa.ca/docs/fact%20sheets/child%20and%20youth/NCCAH_fs_childhealth_EN.pdf

Bober, T., & Regehr, C. (2006). Strategies for Reducing Secondary or Vicarious Trauma: Do They Work? Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 6(1), 1-9. doi:10.1093/brief-treatment/mhj001

Bossini, L., et al. (2017). Morphovolumetric changes after EMDR treatment in drug naïve PTSD patients. Riv Psichiatr. Jan-Feb;52(1):24-31.

Brookshire, B. (2017). Explainer: what is neurotransmission? Retrieved from: https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/explainer-what-neurotransmission

Burstow, B. (2003) ‘Toward a Radical Understanding of Trauma and Trauma Work’, Violence Against Women, 9(11), pp. 1293–1317.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (US). Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2014. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 57.) Chapter 3, Understanding the Impact of Trauma. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207191/

Cherry, K. (2018). Hippocampus role in the limbic system. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-hippocampus-2795231

Clark, Natalie. (2016). Red Intersectionality and Violence-informed Witnessing Praxis with Indigenous Girls. Girlhood Studies. 9. 10.3167/ghs.2016.090205.

Cuncic, A. (2018) Amygdala hijack and the fight or flight response. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-happens-during-an-amygdala-hijack-4165944

Domestic abuse and traumatic brain injury information guide. (nd). New York State Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence. Retrieved from: https://www.opdv.ny.gov/professionals/tbi/dvandtbi_infoguide.pdf

DSM-5 Criteria for PTSD. (2019). Retrieved from: https://www.brainline.org/article/dsm-5-criteria-ptsd

Fairbrother, N. (2004). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use. HeretoHelp. Retrieved from: http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/visions/concurrent-disorders-vol2/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-anxiety-disorders-and-substance-use

Figley, C., & Figley, K. (2007). Put the Oxygen Mask on Your Self First. Family Therapy Magazine. 8-11. Retrieved from: https://www.aamft.org//members/familytherapyresources/articles/07_FTM_2_8_11.pdf

Fisher, J. (1999). The work of stabilization in trauma treatment. Paper presented at the Trauma Center Lecture Series, Boston, MA. Retrieved from: https://janinafisher.com/pdfs/stabilize.pdf

Follette, V., Briere, J., Rozelle, D., Hopper, J., Rome, D. (2014). Mindfulness Oriented Interventions for Trauma: Integrating Contemplative Practices. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Franco, F. (2018). Affect regulation and C-PTSD. Retrieved from: https://psychcentral.com/lib/affect-dysregulation-and-c-ptsd/

Ginwright, S. (2018). The Future of Healing: Shifting from Trauma Informed Care to Healing Centre Engagement. Medium. Retrieved from: https://medium.com/@ginwright/the-future-of-healing-shifting-from-trauma-informed-care-to-healing-centered-engagement-634f557ce69c

Goldsmith, R.E., Martin, C.G., Smith, C., P. (2014). Systemic trauma. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, (15)2, 117-32. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2014.871666

Haskell, L. (2004). Women, Abuse, and Trauma Therapy: An Information Guide for Women and Their Families. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Retrieved from: https://www.camh.ca/-/media/files/guides-and-publications/women-and-abuse-en.pdf

Henderson, T. (2016). TBI and PTSD appear similar but treatments must differ. Retrieved from: https://www.behavioral.net/article/tbi-and-ptsd-appear-similar-treatments-must-differ

How Does Intersectionality Work? (2018). Understanding Intersectionality for Women’s Services. (2018). Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses.

Intersectionality. (2015). Centre for Research & Education on Violence Against Women & Children. Retrieved from: http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/issuebased_newsletters/issue-15/index.html

Intervention to Address Intergenerational Trauma: Overcoming, Resisting and Preventing Structural Violence. (2012). University of Calgary. Retrieved from: https://www.ucalgary.ca/wethurston/files/wethurston/Report_InterventionToAddressIntergenerationalTrauma.pdf

Jankowiak-Siuda, K., Rymarczyk, K., Grabowska, A. (2011). How we empathize with others: A neurobiological perspective. Medical Science Monitor, (17)1. doi: 10.12659/MSM.881324. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3524680/pdf/medscimonit-17-1-ra18.pdf

Kalat, J.W. (2013). Biological Psychology, eleventh edition. Belmont, California. Cengage Learning.

Kozlowska, K. et al. (2015). Fear and the Defense Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 23(4). doi: 10.1097/HRP.0000000000000065

Kozlowski, A.. et al. (2012). First Nations child welfare in Ontario (2011). CWRP Information Sheet #100E. Montreal, QC. McGill University, Centre for Research on Children and Families. Retrieved from: https://cwrp.ca/information-sheet/first-nations-child-welfare-ontario-2011

Kersting, A., Brähler, E., Glaesmer, H., Wagner, B. (2011). Prevalence of complicated grief in a representative population-based sample. Journal of Affective Disorders (131)1-3, 339-343. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.11.032

Lash, M. (2018). TBI and PTSD: Navigating the perfect storm. Retrieved from: https://www.brainline.org/article/tbi-and-ptsd-navigating-perfect-storm

LeDoux, J. (2015). Anxious: Using the Brain to Understand and Treat Fear and Anxiety. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education. 2016 Spring; 14 (2): R22-R23.

Linklater, R. (2011). Decolonizing Trauma Work: Indigenous Practitioners Share Stories and Strategies. University of Toronto, Graduate Department of Adult Education and Counselling Psychology. Retrieved from: https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/31696/3/Broadbridge_Legge_Linklater_Renee_L_201111_PhD_thesis.pdf

Lohr, J.B., Palmer, B.W., Eidt, C.A., Aailaboyina, S., Mausbach, B.T., Wolkowitz, O.M., Thorp, S.R., Jeste, D.V. (2015). Is post-traumatic stress disorder associated with premature senescence? A review of the literature. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, (23)7, 709-725. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2015.04.001.

Lumor, Mbalu. (2017). Vicarious trauma and self-care. Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture, CCR Consultation, Edmonton, AB. Retrieved from: https://ccrweb.ca/sites/ccrweb.ca/files/vicarioustraumaself-care_ccvt.pdf

Möller, A., Söndergaard, H., Helström, L. (2017). Tonic immobility during sexual assault –a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13174

Morrison, F., et al. (2015). Extinction reverses olfactory fear-conditioned increases in neuron number and glomerular size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Retrieved from: 112. 10.1073/pnas.1505068112.

Morrison, A., Frame, L., Larkin, W. (2003). Relationships between trauma and psychosis: A review and integration. British Journal of Clinical Psychology (42), 331-353. doi: 10.1348/014466503322528892

DSIA Handbook. Native Women’s Association of Canada. (2014). Retrieved from: https://www.nwac.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/2014-NWAC-DSIA-Handbook.pdf

Neurodegenerative Diseases. (2019). National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved from: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/supported/health/neurodegenerative/index.cfm

Nogrady, B. (2018). Intimate partner violence and PTSD increase menopausal symptom risk. MDedge ObGyn. Retrieved from: https://www.mdedge.com/obgyn/article/189228/menopause/intimate-partner-violence-and-ptsd-increase-menopausal-symptom-risk

O’Connor, M. (2019). The neurobiological mechanisms of complicated grief. Retrieved from: https://dana.org/grant/the-neurobiological-mechanisms-of-complicated-grief/

ONDRI Diseases. (2019). Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative. Retrieved from: http://ondri.ca/about/ondri-diseases/

Ontario Human Rights Commission. (2018). Interrupted childhoods: Over-representation of Indigenous and Black children in Ontario child welfare. Retrieved from: http://www.ohrc.on.ca/sites/default/files/Interrupted%20childhoods_Over-representation%20of%20Indigenous%20and%20Black%20children%20in%20Ontario%20child%20welfare_accessible.pdf

Pai A, Suris AM, North CS. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the DSM-5: Controversy, Change, and Conceptual Considerations. Behav Sci (Basel). 2017;7(1):7. Published 2017 Feb 13. doi:10.3390/bs7010007. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5371751/

Paradis, R. (2018). The Sixties Scoop: A Literary Review prepared by the Manitoba Association of Friendship Centres. Manitoba Association of Friendship Centres. Retrieved from: http://www.friendshipcentres.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/The-Sixties-Scoop-Literature-Review.pdf

Payne, P. et al (2015). Somatic experiencing: using interoception and proprioception as core elements of trauma therapy. Front Psychol. 2015;6:93. Published 2015 Feb 4. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00093. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4316402/

Randall, M. & Haskell, L. (2013). “Trauma-Informed Approaches to Law: Why Restorative Justice Must Understand Trauma and Psychological Coping”. Dalhousie Law Journal.

Regehr, C., Sussman, T. (2004). Intersections between grief and trauma: toward an empirically based model for treating traumatic grief. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention (4),3. doi: 10.1093/brief-treatment/mhh025

Schwartz, A. (2016). The neurobiology of trauma. Retrieved from: https://drarielleschwartz.com/the-neurobiology-of-trauma-dr-arielle-schwartz/#.XIsAYmRKhhA

Shear, M.K., Wang, Y., Skritskaya, N., Duan, N., Mauro, C. Ghesquiere, A. (2014). Treatment of complicated grief in elderly persons: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry (71)11, 1287-1295. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1242.

Sixties Scoop Apology. (2018). Government of Alberta. Retrieved from: https://www.alberta.ca/assets/documents/sixties-scoop-apology-transcript.pdf

Statistics Canada. (2016). Women in Canada: A Gender-based statistical report.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP).. Series 57. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4801.

The Structure and Function of the Human Brain. (2019). Northern Brain Injury Association. Retrieved from: http://nbia.ca/brain-structure-function/

Union of Ontario Indians. (2013). The Soul Wounds of the Anishinabek People. Retrieved from: http://www.anishinabek.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Soul-Wounds-Booklet.pdf

Manitoba Trauma Informed Education & Resource Centre. (2013). Trauma-informed: the trauma toolkit, second edition. Retrieved from: https://trauma-informed.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Trauma-informed_Toolkit.pdf

Traumatic Brain Injury and Concussion. (2012-2017). American Society of Neuroradiology. Retrieved from: https://www.asnr.org/patientinfo/conditions/tbi.shtml

Tull, M. (2018). The relationship between PTSD and depression. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/ptsd-and-depression-2797533

Understanding the stress response. (2018). Retrieved from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/understanding-the-stress-response

Valera, E. M., & Berenbaum, H. (2003). Brain injury in battered women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(4), 797-804.

Valera, E. (2018). Intimate partner violence and traumatic brain injury: an “invisible” public health epidemic. Retrieved from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/intimate-partner-violence-and-traumatic-brain-injury-an-invisible-public-health-epidemic-2018121315529

Van Der Kolk, B.A. (1989). The compulsion to repeat the trauma. Psychiatrics clinics of North America (12)2, 389-411. doi: 10.1016/S0193-953X(18)30439-8

Vogues, M.A., Romney, D.M. (2003). Risk and resiliency factors in posttraumatic stress disorder. Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://www.general-hospital-psychiatry.com/content/2/1/4/

Young, L. (2019). Nearly 53,000 sexual assault cases treated by Ontario doctors over 15 years: study. Global News. Retrieved from: https://globalnews.ca/news/5655361/sexual-assault-statistics-ontario-hospitals/?fbclid=IwAR3q_MDsIOKJbyMG79-MimICmAAolDZ27aYpV-ZxrRQZTKx4lq2H5cx352o

Wilson, C. et al. (2016). Understanding the neurobiology of trauma and implications for interviewing victims. End Violence Against Women International. Retrieved from: https://www.evawintl.org/Library/DocumentLibraryHandler.ashx?id=842

Wolfe, E. (2016). PTSD and accelerated aging. PTSD Research Quarterly (27)3. Retrieved from: https://www.ptsd.va.gov/publications/rq_docs/V27N3.pdf